Charaka Kalpa Sthana 1st Chapter Madanakalpam

1st chapter of Charaka kalpa sthana deals with “pharmaceutics of madana (Randia dumetorum)”. The chapter name is Madanakalpam.

Now we shall expound the chapter dealing with the “pharmaceutics of madana (Randia dumetorum)”. Thus, said lord Atreya. [1-2]
Read – Madanaphala – Randia dumetorum – Benefits, Qualities, Side Effects

Purpose of composing this section

In the previous section on the “treatment of diseases”, several recipes for emesis and purgation are prescribed in the context of the treatment of various diseases. In the present chapter on “pharmaceutics”, these recipes will be described in detail along with their applicability in the treatment of various diseases. Thus, this is a section on recipes (kalpa).

Needs for describing this section before Siddhi Sthana

Basti (medicated enema), etc. are also described for the treatment of diseases in the previous section i.e. section dealing with treatment of diseases. Therefore, the section dealing with various aspects of this enema therapy (siddhi- sthana) is also required to be described as a part of the treatment of diseases. But while administering Pancha- karma (five specialised elimination therapies) in general emetic (vamana) and purgation (virechana) therapies are to be administered before the administration of basti (medicated enema therapy). Therefore, Kalpa- sthana dealing with these emetics and purgatives is placed before the description of basti therapy. Basti therapy will be described later in the siddhi section.
Read – Vamana Virechana – Emesis and Purgation – Ashtanga Hridayam Sutrasthana 18

Purpose of describing emetics before purgatives

Generally, purgation therapy is administered only after the administration of emetic therapy. Therefore, the chapters describing emetic therapy are placed before the before the dealing with the purgative therapy in this section.

Purgation of describing madanaphala in the first chapter

Among the emetic drugs, madana-phala is the best because it does not produce any adverse effect (vide para no 13). Therefore, the chapter dealing with the recipes containing this drug is placed in the beginning of this section.
Read – Emetic Nut – Madanaphal Remedies: Eczema, Abdominal Pain

Objects of kalpa –sthana

O, Agnivesha! Hereafter, kalpa-sthana (section on pharmaceutics) will be described by me (refers to preceptor Atreya) for the appropriate processing of the recipes with the following objectives:
Preparation of recipes for emesis and purgation which includes main drugs added with the subsidiary ones of the likes of sura (alcohol),  suvira (vinegar) and kovidara having the most useful effects to facilitate emetic and purgative actions along with their varieties and proportions;
Preparation of these recipes appropriately through different pharmaceutical process to facilitate easy action are explained. [3]

Definition of vamana and Virechana

Vamana i.e., therapeutic emesis is the process of expelling morbid material through the upward tract (mouth).
Virechana i.e., therapeutic purgation is the process of expelling morbid material through the downward tract (anus).
Virechana is the common term used to describe both these therapies / processes since both expel the morbid material from the body. [4]

Mode of action of emetics and purgatives

Drugs used for emesis and purgation are ushna (hot), tikshna (sharp), suksma (subtle), vyavayi (those pervading the entire body before of joints) in nature. By the virtue of their own potency these drugs reach the heart, and circulate through the vessels.
Because of their agneya nature (predominance of Agni mahabhuta i.e. fire element), they liquefy the compact (adhered) doshas (morbid material).
They separate the adhered doshas located in the gross and suitable channels of the entire body owing to their tikshna guna i.e. sharpness attribute.
The morbid material, after separation from the channels, moves floating without adhesion in the body which has been subjected to oleation i.e. lubrication therapy, just like the honey kept in a pot smeared with the fat floats without getting adhered to the pot.
Because of its nature to move through subtle channels and to flow (towards the gastro- intestinal) this morbid material reaches the stomach, and gets propelled by udana Vayu.
The morbid material gets expelled through the upward tract (mouth) because of the predominance of Agni and Vayu mahabhutas (fire and air elements) in these emetic drugs and because of their specific action to move upwards.
On the other hand, the purgative drugs owing to the predominance of Prithvi and Jala mahabhutas (earth and water elements), and because of their prabhava i.e. specific actions move downwards to expel the morbid material through the downward tract (anus).
Combination of both these attributes results in the expulsion of the morbid material through both the upward and downward tracts. This is the brief description of the mode of actions of emetic and purgation. [5]
Read – Benefits of Vamana and Virechana Treatment – Charaka Sutrasthana 16

Innumerability of recipes

[Emetic drugs, viz] Phala, Jimutaka, Iksvaku, Dhamargava, Kutaja and Krtavedhana, and purgative drugs, viz., Shyama, Trivrt, Chaturangula, Tilvaka, Mahavrksa, Saptala, Sankhini, Danti and Dravanti are of different types depending upon the below mentioned aspects –desha – habitat,
kala – time of their availability,
sambhava – origin,
ashvada – palatability,
rasa – taste,
virya – potency,
vipaka – the taste that emerges after digestion and
prabhava – specific action

Patients for whom these drugs are to be used are also of different types depending upon the nature of their physique, condition of the doshas, constitution, age, strength, power of digestion and metabolism, liking for a particular type of recipe, wholesomeness, stage of the disease etc. Therefore, in order to cater to the requirement of all these factors the recipes of drugs become innumerable in types. Individual description of the recipes with permutation and combination is impossible. Therefore, by way of illustration, we shall confine our description only to six hundred recipes with multiple smell, colour, taste and touch which are helpful with immediate effects. [6]

Promoting therapeutic efficacy of drugs

These drugs used for emesis and purgation become capable of producing maximum therapeutic effects when their potency is augmented by –
desha-sampat (collecting the plants from the appropriate habitat),
kala- sampat (collecting these plants in the appropriate season),
guna- sampat (collecting plants when these are enriched with excellent attributes) and
bhajana-sampat (strong these plants in appropriate containers) [7]
Read – Collection And Preservation Of Ayurvedic Herbs

Varieties of habitat

Habitats (desha) are of three types, viz jangala (dry forest land), anupa (marshy land) and sadharana (normal land).
1. The jangala- desha (dry forest land) is characterized as follows:
It abounds in open sky
It has deep forests consisting of trees like kadara, khadira, asana, ashva-karna, dhava, tinisa, sallaki, sala, soma-valka, vasari, tinduka, ashvattha, vata and amalaki;
It is mostly surrounded by trees of shami, kakubha and simsapa in large number.
The tender branches of these tress dance, being swayed by the force of continuous dry wind;
It abounds in thin, dry and sands as well as gravels which give rise to mirages;
This area is inhabited by lava, tittiri and cakora and the people inhabiting this type of land are dominated by Vayu and pitta and most of them are sturdy and hardy.

2. The anupa- desha (marshy land) is characterized as follows:
It contains deep forests of trees like hintala, tamala, narikela, and kadali;
It is located generally at the banks of rivers and sea;
Mostly cold wind blows here;
This type of land is located in the neighbourhood of rivers whose banks are beautified by plants like vanjula and vanira.
It has mountains covered with beautiful creepers;
The trees in this thick forest weave with the gentle breeze;
The area is surrounded by thick forest with beautiful and blossoming tress
It is covered with tender branches of trees;
The branches of trees located here are echoed with the sound produced by birds like hamsa, cakravaka, balaka, nandi_ mukha, pundarika, kadamba, madgu, bhrngaraja, satapara, and inebriated kokila and
People inhabiting this type of land are of tender body, and generally they are dominated by Vayu and kalpha.

3. The sadhrana- desha(normal land) is characterized as follows:
It has creepers, vanaspati (trees having fruits without apparent flowers), vanaspatya (trees having both fruits and flowers) birds and beasts described above in respects of jangala desha (dry forest land) and anupa desha(marshy land) and;
Persons inhabiting this land are study, tender, endowed with strength, complexion and compactness, as well as other attributes of people inhabiting in the land of general nature. [8]
Read – Examination of Desha: Habitat / Human Body

Appropriate habitat for drug collection

Medicinal plants, for producing excellent therapeutic effects, are collected from places having the following characteristic features:

These are to be collected from sadharana desha (forests of normal land) or jangala desha (dry land forests)
Plants should have been exposed to seasonal cold, sun, wind and rain appropriately;
Plants should have been grown over plains and clean land surrounded by water reservoirs, rivers etc on the right side;
Plants should not have been grown in a crematorium, caitya (scared tomb), prayer ground, assembly ground, pits, parks, ant-hills and saline soil;
The land should have enormous growth of kusa and rohisa grass;
The soil is unctuous, black in colour and sweet in taste or golden in colour and sweet in taste
The land should not have been ploughed, and
There should not be other big trees in the vicinity over- shadowing the medicinal plants. [9]

Appropriate time and method of drug collection

Drugs are collected in the appropriate season when they have attained maturity in respect of their size, taste, potency and smell. Their smell, colour, taste, touch and specific action should have remained unaffected by time (like over maturity), excessive exposure to sun-rays, fire, water and wind, and parasites. They are endowed with all attributes. They are collected from the northern side.

Fresh branches and tender leaves are culled in the rainy season and spring season. Their roots are collected in summer or late winter (Shishira) when the leaves of the trees have ripened and withered out. Their barks, rhizomes and latex are collected in hemanta (early winter), wood including exudates are collected during appropriate seasons [when flowers and fruits appears in the plant]
One should collect the various parts of these plants while facing towards the east or north after performing auspicious rites in a spirit of compassion, while living a pure life, while wearing white dress, after offering prays to the gods, asvins, cows and brahmins, and while observing fast. [10]
Read – Relationship Of Doshas With Seasons

Proper storage

The collected plant products are kept in appropriate containers well covered with a lid and hung on a swing. The store-room should have doors facing towards the east or the north. The room is immune to the wind or storm and there is only one window for ventilation. Flower- offerings and sacrificial rituals are performed in the store-room every day. It is free from the hazards of fire, water, moisture, smoke, dust, mice and quadrupeds. [11]

Adjuvants according to doshas

Different adjuvants are required to be used along with these drugs in accordance with the doshas involved in the causation of the disease.
For treating the diseases caused by Vayu – these drugs are impregnated and mixed with sura, sauviraka, maireyaka, medaka, dhanyamla, phalamla (juice of sour fruits like pomegranate), dadhyamla (sour yogurt), etc.
For the treatment of diseases caused by pitta, these drugs are to be used by adding mrdvika, amalaka, honey, madhuka, parusaka, phanita, milk etc.
For the treatment of diseases caused by kapha, these recipes are to be added with honey, murta (urine), kashaya (decoctions of kapha- alleviating drugs), etc.
Thus, the adjuvants are described in brief.

We shall hereafter describe them in detail in relation to different categories of dravya (nature of drug), deha (requirement of various types of physique), doshas (aggravated to cause the disease) and satmya (homologation). [12]

Collection, storage and recipes of madanaphalam

Fruits of madana are considered to be the best among the emetic drugs because they are free from any adverse side effects. These fruits are to be collected during the middle of the spring and summer in a maitra muhurta (auspicious period of the day) when the moon is in the constellation of pushya, asvini or mrgasiras. These fruits are fully matured, not perforated not green but yellowish white in colour, not rotten, not infested with parasites and not small in size. These fruits are cleaned and tied up inside a bundle of barley husk, masha, sali type of paddy, kulattha or mudga for eight nights.

Afterwards, when they have become soft and are endowed with desirable smell like that of honey, these fruits are taken out of the bundle and dried up. When these are well dried up their seeds are taken out. These seeds are rubbed with ghee, curd, honey and oil-cake, and dried again. These seeds are kept in a new jar cleaned of sand and dust particles and filled up to its brim. This jar is properly covered with a lid, and after the performance of protective rituals, is placed in a swing. [13]
Read – Ritucharya – Ayurvedic Seasonal Regimen – 3rd Chapter – Ashtang Hriday

Procedure of administering emetic therapy

  • The person is subjected to oleation and fomentation therapies for two or three days prior to the administration of emetic therapy. 
  • During the night before the day of administration of the emetic therapy, he is given the diet consisting of the soup of the meat of gramya (domesticated), anupa  (marshy land- inhabiting) and audaka (aquatic) animals, milk, curd, masha, sesame seeds, vegetables, etc, for the excitation of kapha.
  • On the next morning when the food taken in the previous night is digested, after performing bali (religious sacrifices), homa (scared ritual of offering oblations of ghee to fire), mangala (auspicious rituals) and prayascitta (rituals for neutralizing effects of possible sinful acts), and when the stomach is empty, the patient who is anati snigdha (has not been given with excessive oleation), is given gruel added with some ghee for intake.
  • Seeds of madana phala, a fistful in quantity or in a quantity as may be found appropriate, may be crushed, added with the decoction of either yasti-madhu, kovidara (which flowers in the autumn), karbudara (kanchanara which flowers in the spring), nipa (kadamba), vidula (vetasa), bimbi, sanapuspi (ghantarava), sada-puspi (arka- puspika) or pratyakpuspi (ghantarava), sada-puspi (arka puspika) or pratyakpuspi (apamarga), and kept overnight. In the morning, this obtained, is stirred with hand and filtered. The liquid, thus obtained, is added with honey and rock-salt, made slightly warm, filled up to the brim in a drinking pot, and impregnated with the following mantra. [The mantra has to be recited in its original language for which the script is Romanised below. The translation is furnished thereafter only for the comprehension of its connotations].
  • Original mantra:
    “om brahma- daksasvirudrendra-bhu-candrarkanilanah|
    Rsayah sausadhigrama bhutasanghasca pantu te||
    Rasayanamivarsinam’devanam amrtam yatha|
    Bhisajyam idam astu te||
    Translation of the mantra: May brahma, daksha, the asvins, rudra, indra, the earth, the moon, the sun, the wind, the fire, the sages, all the drugs and all the living beings protect you. Let the recipe produce effects on you as the rejuvenating recipes have done to the sages, as the ambrosia has done to the gods, and as sudha (a type of ambrosia) has done to the chief of the nagas.
  • After the recipe has been impregnated with the mantra described above, it is administered to the patient while he is facing towards the east or the north repeatedly. It should be given till the bile comes out along with the vomited material. This is essential, especially for the patients suffering from kaphaja type of fever, gulma, (phantom tumour) and pratishyaya (chronic cold). By this method, emesis takes place properly.
  • If the urge for vomiting is weak, then this is augmented by the repeated administration of the paste of pippali, amalaka, sarsapa and vacha added with salt and warm water till the bile appears in the vomited material.
  • This is the method of administering all types of emetic recipes.  [14]

Use of honey and rock- salt

In all the emetic recipes, honey and rock-salt is added in order to facilitate the liquefaction and chedana (separation of adhesion) of kapha. The emetic recipe should always be administered hot. This honey added to hot emetic recipes is not incompatible with heat (i.e. taken after it is added to hot water which generally products toxic reactions) because this honey is thrown out undigested along with vomited material, and helps in the elimination of morbid doshas. [15]
Read – Vamanopaga Gana: Emesis Aiding Herbs: Review, Benefits, Formulations

Eight recipes of madana phala in pill from

Two (out of three) parts of the seeds of madana phala is added with (six times of) the decoctions of kovidara, etc (including karbudara, nipa, vidula, bimba, sana-puspi, sada-puspi, and pratyak –puspi- these eight drugs are described in para no. 14), and strained for twenty one times. With this liquid, the (remaining) third part of the seeds is triturated and made to paste. From out of this paste, pills of the size of haritaki, bibhitaka or amalaki are prepared. One or two of these pills are given by rubbing with one anjali (approximately 192 ml) of the decoction either of the eight drugs (described above) to a patient suffering from praseka (salivation), granthi (tumour or nodules), jvara (fever), udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascites) and aruchi (anorexia). 
The remaining procedure as described above (in para no 14) is adopted for these recipes also. [16]
Read – Vamana And Virechana In The Treatment Of Kushta

Recipes of madan phal prepared with milk

The four recipes of madana phala prepared by boiling with milk are as follows:

  • According to the procedure prescribed for ksira-paka, the seeds of madana phala are cooked by adding milk.
  • Gruel is prepared by adding this milk. Both the above mentioned recipes are useful as emetics for patients suffering from adhoga raktapitta (a disease characterized by bleeding through the downward tracts) and hrd-daha i.e. burning sensation in the cardiac region.
  • Cream is taken out of the yoghurt prepared of the above mentioned medicated milk. This is useful in kaphaja type of chardi (vomiting), tamaka (asthma) and praseka (ptyalism).
  • The milk described in item no.1 above is cooled, and the cream from this milk is taken out. This cream is administered in the dose of one anjali (192 ml). This is useful when pitta is aggravated, and the chest, throat as well as heart is adhered with thin layer of kapha.
  • The rest of the procedure, to be followed in this connection is as described before (in the paragraph no. 14) [17]

Recipe of madana phala prepared with butter

The butter collected from the milk boiled with the seeds of madana-phala is cooked by adding the paste and decoction of madana-phala, (jimutaka, iksvaka, dhamargava, kutaja and krta- vedhana). This medicated ghee is administered in appropriate dose to a patient suffering from the suppression of Agni (enzymes responsible for digestion) by kapha, and dehydration of the body.
The rest of the procedure to be followed in this connection is as described earlier (in para no. 14). [18]
Read – Emetic Nut – Madanaphal Remedies: Eczema, Abdominal Pain

Recipe of madanphal for inhalation

Seeds of madana-phala is well impregnated with the decoction  of phala, (jumutaka, iksvaku, dhamargava, kutaja and krta-vedhana) for twenty one times, and made to fine powder resembling the pollens of flowers. In the evening, a big lotus flower growing in a pond is sprinkled with this powder and kept there, overnight. In the next morning, the same powder is once again sprinkled over the lotus flower petals and the flower is plucked. This powder (sprinkled on the lotus petals) is given for inhalation to a patient who is of tender nature, in whom pitta and kapha are excited and who has an aversion to taking medicine orally.  This inhalation therapy is administered after the patient is fully fed (up to the throat) with turmeric krshara (a type of gruel preparation containing rice and lentils), milk or gruel after adding rock-salt, jaggery and phanita (treacle).
The rest of the process to be followed in this connection is the same as described before (in para no. 14). [19]

Recipes of madanfal in the form of treacle and powder

The juice of madana-phala is extracted according to the procedure already described for extracting the essence of bhallataka (vide cikitsa 1:3:14). It should then be cooked till it is reduced to the consistency of treacle, and till threads appears when a portion of the paste is pulled out. This linctus is taken by the patient.
The seeds of madana-phala are dried in the sun, added with the decoction of jimutaka, etc, made to a powder, and administered to the patient who is suffering from ailments caused by the migration of the morbid pitta to the place (seat) of kapha.
The rest of the procedure to be followed in this connection is as described before (in para no. 14)

Recipes of madanaphala in the form of varti

The decoction of any of the six drugs, viz, madana-phala, jimutaka, iksvaka, dhamargava, kutaja and krtavedhana and made into vartis (enlongated pills). These are to be taken mixed with the decoction of madana–phala etc.,
The rest of the procedure to be followed in this connection is as described before (in para no 14). [21]

Recipes of madanaphal in the form of linctus

Seeds of madana-phala is made into linctus by boiling with the decoction of one of the below mentioned –
Vrksaka (kutaja)
Svadukantaka (vikankata)
Sarngesta (gunja)
Susavi (karvellaka)
Srngavera [and to the patient for emesis]

The rest of the procedure to be followed in this connection is as described before (in para no 14). [22]

Preparation of madanaphala in the form of utkarika nd modaka

Seeds of madana-phala are cooked with the decoction of one of the twenty drugs, viz

Paripelava (kaivarta –mustaka)
Sthauneyaka (granthiparnaka)
Paravata padi and
Ashoka-rohini (katurohini)

With the pastes, thus obtained (twenty types each of), utkarika (pancake) and modaka (sweetmeat) is prepared, following the procedure prescribed for utkarika and modaka respectively. These are to be administered on accordance with the aggravated doshas, the nature of the disease, and liking of the patient. 
The rest of the procedure to be followed in this connection is as described in para no. 14. [23]

Preparation of madanaphala in the form of saskuli and pupa

The paste of tila and shali-rice are prepared by adding the juice or decoction or the seeds of madana-phala. This paste is further processed by adding the decoction of the seeds of madana-phala. From this paste, saskuli (a type of pan-cake) and pupa (preparation of sweetmeat) is prepared, and administered to the patient.
The rest of the procedure to be followed in this connection is as described earlier 9 in para no. 14)
[the paste of tila and sali-rice prepared with the juice or decoction of the seeds of madana-phala may be further processed by adding the] decoction of [one of the fifteen drugs, viz,]

Dandairaka (gundra or nala) from this paste, saskulis and pupas may be prepared [and administered to the patient following the procedure earlier described in the paragraph no. 14] [24-25]

Preparation of madanaphala in the form of badara-sadava etc.

Seeds of madana-phala may be added to one of the preparations like –
Badara-sadava (name of a sour liquid preparation of jujube fruit)
Raga (an appetiser having sour and pungent tastes)
Leha (linctus)
Modaka (sweet meat)
Utkarika (pan-cake)
Tarpana (demulcent drink)
Panaka (syrup)
Mamsa-rasa ((meat-soup)
Yusa (vegetable soup)

Madya (alcohol) and given to the patient, depending upon the state of the doshas, nature of the disease and likings. By these preparations the patient vomits well.  [26]
Read – Ayurvedic Health Benefits Of Modak, Preparation Method

Synonymous of madanaphala

The recipes described in the previous paragraphs are those of the drug whose synonyms are: madana, karahata, ratha, pinditaka, phala and svasana.

Contents of the chapter

To sum up: –
In this chapter the great sage (Atreya) has described 133 recipes prepared with madana phala. They are as follows –
Nine recipes in the form of decoction (vide para no 14)
Eight recipes in the form of matra (pills)
Five recipes in the form of medicated milk and medicated ghee (vide para no 17-18)
One recipe to be used for inhalation (vide para no 19)
Two recipes in the form of treacle and powder; (vide para no 20)
Six recipes in the form of varti (elongated pill) (vide para no 21)
Twenty recipes in the form of linctus (vide para no. 23)
Twenty recipes in the form of utkarika (pan-cake) (vide para n 23)
Twenty recipes in the form of modaka (sweet-meat) (vide para no. 23)
 Sixteen recipes of saskuli (a type of pancake) and (vide para no. 24-25)
Sixteen recipes of pupa (a type of sweet-meat) and (vide para no. 24-25)
Ten recipes prepared by adding madana-phala to badara –sadava etc. (vide para no 26)

Thus, ends the first chapter of kalpa- section dealing with the “pharmaceutics of madana-phala” of Agnivesha’s work as redacted  by charaka, and because of its non- availability supplemented by drdhabala.

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