Urine Test And Diagnosis In Ayurveda – Taila Bindu Pareeksha

Article by – Dr Renita D’Souza
Ayurveda explains examination of urine for ascertaining diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Ancient urine test is considered as one among the 8 fold test mentioned for the examination of patient by the author Yoga Rathnakar. 

Introduction

Eight fold examination includes – 
Nadi – Pulse examination
Mutra – Urine examination
Mala – Stool examination
Jihva – Tongue examination (Read more about tongue examination)
Shabda – Examination based on sounds
Drik – Inspection
Aakriti – Examination of whole body

Read related – Complete Pulse Diagnosis Method As per Ayurveda Textbook

Importance of urine examination in Ayurveda – 

  • Diagnosis of disease
  • To assess dosha involved
  • Prognosis
  • Symptoms indicating definite signs of death (Arista Lakshana)

Normal urine

Panchabhautika element of urine
Jala – water
Teja – fire

Read related – 10 Factors Of Patient Examination – Dasha Vidha Atura Pareeksha

Normal urine
Color – pale yellow
Odor – aromatic
Appearance – clear, transparent
Average volume – 1500 ml/day
pH – 6.0
Specific gravity – 1.001 – 1.003

Normal urine constituents –
Urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium chloride, potasium chloride, magnesium,calcium, iron etc in normal quantity.
Read: Urine In Ayurveda – Functions, Importance

Abnormal urine

Abnormal constituents of urine

  • Albumin
  • Glucose
  • Bile salts
  • Bile pigments
  • Ketone bodies
  • Red blood cells

Urine collection

Method of collecting urine –
Collected in the early morning around 4 am in a glass jar. Only the middle stream is collected discarding first few drops of urine. Examination of urine is done after sunrise.

Urine test

Urine test is done based on 2 methods –

  1. Physical test
  2. Test by dipping oil in urine sample (Taila bindu pareeksha)

Physical test

Physical test is done through –

  • Inspection
  • Examination of odor
  • Examination by touch
  • Interrogation

Read related – Ayurvedic Tongue Examinations Explained In Vaidya Sara Sangraha

Inspection

Examination by inspection
Dosha assessment by urine test – (Y.R )
Vata – Urine appears whitish
Kapha –  Frothy urine
Pitta – Urine appears reddish in color
Three doshas vitiation – Color of urine becomes black
Any two dosha vitiation – Mixed features of dosha involved

Fever
Vata – parusha aruna (rough and dusky red), scanty urine
Pita – peetha (yellow)
Kapha – shwaithya (pale whitish urine)
Sannipathaja – scanty
Read : Lifestyle and Diet For Fever

Jaundice
Vata and pitta (kumbha kamala) – blackish yellow

Anemia (pandu) Ma Ni 798
Vata –  krishna aruna (blackish red)
Pitta – peetha (yellow)
Kapha – Shukla (whitish)
Read – Anemia: Ayurvedic Treatment, Medicines, Remedies

Prameha (diabetes)- Ma. ni(11/29) and Ch ni 4, Su Ni 6
Read: Prameha – Ayurvedic Approach To Urinary Disorders
Kaphajameha
Udhakameha

  • Appearance – clear, slight turbid (kinchith avila),
  • Quantity – excess
  • Color  – white (sitha)
  • Odour – odorless (nirgandha)
  • Other – cold (sheetha), slimy (pichila)

Ikshumeha

  • Appearance – turbid
  • Taste – sweet like sugarcane
  • Ishath pichila – slight slimy

Sandra meha

  • Appearance – Sandra (dense – viscous urine)
  • Parushiyham –

Surameha

  • Appearance is compared to wine (sura), when collected in a vessel  it separates into two layer upper layer forms clear portion and lower dense portion.

Pisthameha (Va)/ Suklameha (Cha)

  • Appearance – excessively white (bahalam sitham) like paste of flour (pishtavath)
  • Horripilation during micturition (samhrusta roma)

Sukrameha (spermaturia)

  • Appearnce – like semen (sukrabham)
  • Sukramishram – mixed with sukra

Sikathameha (graveluria)

  • Sand like particles appear in urine

Read related – Urinari calculi – Home Remedies, Ayurved Treatment, Diet, Recipes

Sheethameha

  • Frequent excretion of urine (bhahusho)
  • Taste – sweet
  • cold to touch (bhrusha sheethalam)

Shanairmeha

  • Passes urine frequently in less quantity
  • Quantity – less

Aalalameha / lalaameha

  • Appearance – thready, frothy like saliva
  • Pichila – slimy

Read related – Prameha: Ayurvedic Approach To Urinary Disorders

Pithajameha
Sharameha

  • Odour, color, taste, touch like those of alkalies (sharena)

Kaalameha / Amlameha (Su)

  • Color – black like burnt coal (masinibha)
  • Excretion of large quantity of urine

Neelameha

  • Color – blue (neelabha), like blue jay bird(chasha pakshanibha)
  • Taste – sour

Rakthameha (haematuria)

  • Color – red (rakthabha)
  • Odor – like raw flesh (visra)
  • Taste – salty (slavanam)

Manjistameha

  • Color – like that of manjista juice (red)
  • Odor – fleshy
  • Frequent urination

Haridrameha (urobilinuria)

  • Taste – pungent (katu)
  • Color – yellow like turmeric (haridrabham)
  • Burning sensation during micturition

Vatajameha
Vasameha

  • Appearnce – like vasa (muscle fat)
  • Urine mixed with muscle fat (vasamishra)
  • Urine excreted frequently

Majjameha (Va) / Sarpimeha (Su)

  • Appears like bone marrow (majja)
  • Urine mixed with bone marrow
  • Frequent urination

Hasthimeha

  • Large quantity of urine excreted continuously like an elephant gone amuck
  • Urine mixed with lymph (salasikam)
  • Incurable due to vitiation of vata

Madumeha (Va) /Shaodrameha (Su)

  • Taste – sweet and astringent
  • Color – pale (pandu)
  • Appearnce – dry (ruksha)
  • Incurable due to vitiation of vata

Shaudrameha – Urine attains taste and color like that of honey.

Odor

Urine attains foul smell in diabetes, urinary tract infection, dehydration etc some diets and medications can also alter the normal smell of urine. Eating vegetable like asparagus can make your urine smell like rotten cabbage.

Change in color of urine –
Change in normal  urine color can be suggestive of serious clinical conditions to simple like due to less intake of water or taking diet such as beetroot, blueberries and some medications can also alter the color of urine.

Quantity, frequency

Based on quantity of urine
Less quantity

  • Aamlameha
  • Neelameha
  • Vata orgin Ashmari (renal calculi)
  • Mutrothsangha (Obstruction for urination)
  • Vatakundalika
  • Vata origin mutrakrichra (difficulty urination)
  • Shanairmeha

Read related – Urinary Obstruction: Causes, Types, Symptoms, Ayurvedic Treatment

Excess quantity

  • Pravrddha amavatha
  • Prameha prathyathma lakshana (diabetes)
  • Shithameha
  • Udakameha

Increased  frequency of urination –

  • vata origin ashmari (renal calculi)
  • Pita and vata origin mutrkrichra (Difficulty urination)
  • shanairmeha

Read related – Amla Home Remedy For Frequent Urination – Prepare It Within A Minute

Pain, blood associated

Urination associated with pain – 

  • Ashmari (renal calculi)
  • Pita origin mutrakrichra
  • Mutashaya (decrease urine volume)
  • Mutrothsangha (obstruction of urination)
  • Vata kundalika

Urine associated with blood –

  • Renal calculi
  • Pita origin mutrakrichra
  • Mutrasadha
  • mutrasangha
  • Pitavritha apaanavayu
  • Rakthameha (diabetes)
  • Adhogha rakthapitta (Bleeding disorders)
  • Ushnavata

Read related – Bleeding Disorders: Ayurveda Treatment, Diet, Home Remedies

Symptoms

Symptoms indicating nearing death in patient (Arista lakshana)

  • When person suffering from dyspnea, low digestive strength and abdominal disorders, passes stools and urine in hard, condensed form.
  • Patient suffering from horripilation, passes viscous urine, anasarca, cough, fever along with emaciation.
  • Consumption of excess quantity of food by emaciated person but excretes scanty urine and stools or vice versa.

Taila bindu pareeksha

Taila bindu pareeksha – Test by dropping oil in urine
This test is done by dipping oil in urine sample. It is mainly based on direction of oil spreading in the sample.

Importance –
Indicates dosha involvement in disease, its prognosis and signs of incurability.

Method –
One drop of oil is put in urine sample and examined its action under sunlight.

Analysis

Assessment based on action of oil dropped in sample –
Dosha assessment
Vata – oil attains round shape in urine sample
Pitta – appearance of bubbles
Kapha – pointed appearance of oil
Three doshas vitiation – it sinks in urine sample
Read related – How To Make Prognosis Of Disease According To Ayurveda?

Assessment of prognosis and in-curability of disease 

  • If oil spreads in sample it indicates good prognosis of illness
  • If doesn’t spread, signifies difficult prognosis.
  • If it sinks, indicates in-curability of disease.
  • If it moves towards south direction, it indicates patient suffering from fever and regains health gradually.
  • North direction assures curability of disease.
  • Spreading toward west direction signifies upcoming healthy and happier state of patient.
  • In north east direction it indicates death of patient within one month.
  • Death of patient is indicated when it spreads towards south – west and south – east and breaking into many pieces.
  • Spreading towards north – west assures the death of patient even if nectar is given to him.
  • If the shape of oil attains like that of cow, weapon, head- less body, tortoise,quadrangular, triangular then such patients are not treated as it assures his death.
  • If attains the shape of lotus, pond, pigeon,elephant, house etc, such patients are treated.
  • If attains the shape like that of man or appearance of two brains indicates patient suffering from bhutha dosha.

Further reading:
Urinalysis – A detailed patient guide to understand modern methods of urine analysis and inferences.
Clinical urine tests – Wikipedia article on various diagnostic tests done with urine.

Click to Consult Dr Renita D’Souza

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