Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Apanga is an important Marma i.e. vital or delicate point in the body. It is located at the outer angle of the eye, near the outer part of the eyebrow on each side (outer canthus). It is predominantly made up of siraas (blood vessels, veins).
भ्रू पुच्छ अन्तरयोरयो अक्ष्णोः बाह्यतो अपाङ्गौ तत्र आन्ध्यं दृष्ट्यभिघातो वा।(सु.शा.६/२७)
Apang Marmas are located at the outer canthus (outer angle) of the eye on each side. They are located exactly below the outer end of the eyebrow on each side.
Categories in which the Apaanga Marma is included
i) Shiro-Greeva Gata Marma (Shiro = Head, Greeva = Neck)
ii) Siraa Marma – Apaang marma is predominantly made up of Siraas i.e. blood vessels (veins). The other elements namely Asthi (Bones), Snaayu (ligaments, tendons, nerves), Sandhi (bony joints) and Mamsa (muscles) are also present but in a lesser proportion.
iii) Vaikalyakara Marma – (Vaikalya kara – deformity forming) Apaanga Marmas when injured are said to produce deformity of the body.
Pramana (measurement of Apaanga Marma) –
Apaanga Marma occupies a space of ½ angula dimension (approximately equal to the horizontal dimension or breadth of middle segment of one’s own middle finger)
Effect of Injury
तत्र आन्ध्यं दृष्ट्यभिघातो वा।(सु.शा.६/२७)
Injury of Apaanga Marma causes deformity.
Injury leads to Aandhya (blindness) and Drishti Abhighaata (Impaired Vision).
Modern Perspective (Practical anatomy) of Apaanga Marma
Structures falling in the area of Apaanga Marma –
- Zygomatic blood vessels
- Temporal Blood vessels
- Optic nerves
- Ciliary nerves
- Lacrimal (ophthalmic) nerves
- Abducens Nerves
Though all the elements which comprise a marma i.e. asthi (bones), mamsa (muscles), snaayu (ligaments and tendons) and sandhi (joints) are all present in the site of this Marma, it is predominant in the siraa (blood vessels, veins) making up the Apaanga Marma, therefore it is a Siraa Marma.
When Apaanga marma gets damaged, the effect of injury will chiefly involve the blood vessels around the eye in comparison to the extent of damage caused to other tissues.
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