Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) and Dr Manasa, B.A.M.S
Lohitaksha Marma is one of the delicate and vital points of the body located at the root of arms and thighs.
बाहव्यम् ऊर्ध्वम् अधो कक्षा सन्धे बाहु मूले लोहिताक्षम् नाम, तत्र लोहित क्षयेण पक्षाघातः।(सु.शा.६)
ऊर्व्या ऊर्ध्वम् अधो वंक्षण सन्धेः ऊरु मूले लोहिताक्षं नाम (ऊरुमूले लोहिताख्यं) तत्र लोहित क्षयेण मरणं पक्षाघातो वा।(सु.शा.६)
Lohitaksha Marma is located at the root of the arm in the upper limb and root of the thigh in the lower limb.
Number – 4 in number, 1 in each arm and 1 in each thigh.
Exact location of Lohitaksha Marma in the limbs:
Lohitaksha Marma is located near the shoulder joint in the upper limb and near the hip joint in the lower limb.
In the Upper limb – The Lohitaksha Marma is located exactly above the Baahvi Marma (located above the elbow joint) and below the Kaksha Sandhi (shoulder joint) and the root of the upper limb.
In the Lower limb – The Lohitaksha Marma is located exactly above the Oorvi Marma (located in the thigh, above the knee joint) and below the Vankshana Sandhi (hip joint) and at the root of the thigh.
Categories in which the Lohitaksha Marma is included
i) Shaka Gata Marma (Shaaka=Limb) Marmas located in the limbs.
ii) Sira Marma – Lohitaksha marma is predominantly made up of Sira i.e. blood vessels, which form the structural component of this Marma. Therefore it is classified under Sira Marma. The other tissues are recessive and are present in less proportion, namely Snayu (ligaments, tendons, and nerves), Asthi (bone), Sandhi (joints) and Mamsa (muscles).
iii) Vaikalyakara Marmas – (Vaikalya – deformity, Kara – forming) – Lohitaksha Marmas on getting injured causes vaikalya or deformity of the arm or upper limb. Since Lohitaksha Marma causes deformity, it is classified under Vaikalyakara Marma (deformity forming Marma).
Pramana (measurement of Lohitaksha Marma) –
Lohitaksha Marma occupies a space of ½ angula dimension (1 angula is approximately equal to the horizontal dimension or breadth of middle segment of one’s own middle finger)
Effect of Injury
तत्र लोहित क्षयेण पक्षाघातः।(सु.शा.६)
तत्र लोहित क्षयेण मरणं पक्षाघातो वा।(सु.शा.६)
Injury to the Lohitaksha Marma leads to Pakshaghata or Paralysis of limb due to loss of blood. If the Lohitaksha Marma is injured in the upper limb, it leads to the paralysis of the upper limb due to severe blood loss. If the Lohitaksha Marma is injured in the lower limb, it leads to paralysis of lower limb due to blood loss and also death.
Modern Perspective (Practical anatomy) of Lohitaksha Marma
Structures falling in the area of Lohitaksha Marma –
In the upper limb:
- Axillary artery
- Brachial artery
- Venae commitants of Brachial artery
- Median Nerve
- Ulnar Nerve
- Pectoralis Major muscle
- Pectoralis Minor muscle
In the lower limb: Femoral triangle and its contents
We can see the muscles, ligaments, tendons and other tissues too being present in this area comprising of Lohitaksha Marma but it is rich in blood vessels. Therefore it is a Sira Marma.
When the Lohitaksha Marma is injured, all the structures involved in any place of marma i.e. snayus (ligaments, tendons, nerves), asthi (bones), mamsa (muscles) and sandhi (joints) may be susceptible to get damaged but the sira (blood vessels) which chiefly make up the structure of Lohitaksha Marma tends to get injured to a severe extent in comparison to other structures. The impact of injury too will be chiefly due to the effect of injury to the sira component.
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