By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat
Explaining a particular concept with the help of another but different concept in an indirect manner is known as Hetwartha tantra yukti.
यदन्यदुक्तमन्यार्थसाधकं भवति स हेत्वर्थः । यथा- मृत्पिण्डोऽद्भिः प्रक्लिघते तथा माषदुग्धप्रभृतिभिर्व्रणः प्रक्लिघत इति ॥सु.उ/११॥
yadanyaduktamanyārthasādhakaṃ bhavati sa hetvarthaḥ | yathā- mṛtpiṇḍo’dbhiḥ praklighate tathā māṣadugdhaprabhṛtibhirvraṇaḥ praklighata iti ||Su.U/11||
For example,- “As in case of a lump of clay (mṛtpiṇḍa) getting moistened (praklighate) by the water (adbhiḥ), so is the case of ulcer (vraṇa)with māṣa (black gram), dugdha(milk) etc(prabhṛtibhiḥ) dravyas”.
The indirect implication of meaning over here is that the black gram and milk should be avoided in case of vrana (ulcers over skin), since they by thier snighda,picchila guru gunas are capable of increasing the moistness within the body which will act as an hindrance in quicker healing of ulcer by delaying the granulation tissue formation.
समासवचनमुद्देशः । यथा- शल्यमिति॥सु.उ/१२॥
दल्हन:- उद्देशलक्षणमाह- समासेत्यादि। सङ्क्षेपेणभणनमुद्देश इत्यर्थः। उदाहरणमाह- यथा शल्यमिति। सर्वमेवाबाधजननं सङ्क्षेपेण शल्यमुच्यते, नतु शारीरागन्तुभेदेन प्रपञ्चनात्॥सु.उ/१२॥
samāsavacanamuddeśaḥ | yathā- śalyamiti||Su.U/12||
Dalhana:- uddeśalakṣaṇamāha- samāsetyādi| saṅkṣepeṇabhaṇanamuddeśa ityarthaḥ| udāharaṇamāha- yathā śalyamiti| sarvamevābādhajananaṃ saṅkṣepeṇa śalyamucyate, natu śārīrāgantubhedena prapañcanāt||Su.U/12||
The statement (vacanam) which is expressed in a brief (samāsa) format is understood as uddes’a tantra yukti.
Example :- The word Shalya
The mention of the word śalya generally indicates any foreign body piercing the shareera due to trauma is referred as shalyam. But, secondarily it can imply obstruction pathology occuring within the channels of the body too.)
The pus pockets (pUya) occuring within a vidradhi (abscess) is śalya
The ashmari formed in the neck of the gall bladder causing blockage to the passage (cholelithiasis) of pitta in entering the grahani, is shalyam. Same is the case with the calculus obsrtucyting the passage of ureter, where in the calculus is considered as a śalya. Though it is not a foreign body of exogenous cause, but that of endogenous one, still by the concept of uddes’a tantra yukti, it is considered as śalya.
6. Nirdesha :-
vistaravacanaṃ nirdeśaḥ | yathā- śārīramāgantukaṃ ceti ||Su.U/13||
विस्तरवचनं निर्देशः । यथा- शारीरमागन्तुकं चेति ॥सु.उ/१३॥
निर्देशलक्षणमाह- विस्तरेत्यादि। विस्तरेण भाषणं निर्देश इत्यर्थः। उदाहरणमाह- यथा शारीरमागन्तुकं चेति। शारीरशल्यमागन्तुकं च शल्यमिति शल्यं द्विविधमुच्यते॥सु.उ/१३॥
nirdeśalakṣaṇamāha- vistaretyādi| vistareṇa bhāṣaṇaṃ nirdeśa ityarthaḥ| udāharaṇamāha- yathā śārīramāgantukaṃ ceti| śārīraśalyamāgantukaṃ ca śalyamiti śalyaṃ dvividhamucyate||Su.U/13||
The detailed (vistareṇa) statement(bhāṣaṇaṃ) of a pada or word is Nirdeśa.
Example:-The uddeśaḥ (brief statement) word śalyaṃ
can be detailed by mentioning their classifcations based on the types and sub types. The śalyaṃ is of two kinds “Sarīraja śalyaṃ ” (idiopathic foreign body) and “āgantuja śalyaṃ ” (traumatic foreign body) is the nirdesha statement for the brief word śalyaṃ.
7. Upadesha –
एवमित्युपदेशः । यथा- ‘तथा न जागृयाद्रात्रौ दिवास्वप्नं च वर्जयेत्’ इति ॥सु.उ/१४॥
evamityupadeśaḥ | yathā- ‘tathā na jāgṛyādrātrau divāsvapnaṃ ca varjayet’ iti ||Su.U/14||
DalhaNa:- upadeśalakṣaṇamāha- evamityādi| evaṃ kuryādityupadeśa ityarthaḥ| udāharaṇamāha- yathetyādi| nanu, upadeśaniyogayoḥ ko bhedaḥ? ucyate, prāyika upadeśaḥ, yathā- rātrau na jāgṛyāditi prāyikatvenopanyastaṃ, kaphādyabhibhūte tu tatra rātrijāgaraṇasyāpi śastatvāt divā na svāpaṃ kuryādityapi prāyikaṃ, grīṣme tṛṣṇādyanvaye ca divāsvāpasyocitatvāt; niyogaścāprāyikaḥ, yathā- pathyameva bhoktavyamiti; yadyapi ‘jvarito’hitamaśnīyādyadyapyasyārucirbhavet’ ityādinā’pathyabhojanasyāpyavakāśaḥ, tathā’pi tadānīmapathyasyaiva pathyatvamiti niyogasya vyabhicāro nāsti||Su.U/14||
Upadesa is an instruction for the doing of a thing in a particular way. For example – one should not sit up at night and one should give up sleep at the daytime.
It is of two types – (a) prāyika upadeśaḥ & (b) niyogaścāprāyikaḥ upadeśaḥ.
Example – “Awakening at night for a longer time should be avoided is a customary(प्रायिकत्वे) advice. ,
Another example – “In a person who has Predominance of kapha by nature had awaken for a longer time at night, to whom, though divasvapna looks beneficial, he should avoid compensating his lost sleep the next day (diva svapnam)”,- this too is an example for prāyika upadeśaḥ (Customary Advice)
An example for, niyogaścāprāyikaḥ upadesha (Unusual Advice) is “unwholesome food (apathya) alone is to be partaken”. Although in jvara intake of ahita ashana (unwholesome food items) will result in aruci (anorexia) angamarda etc., the above example over the context of apathya, where in apathya is considered to be to be pathya (wholesome) – in case of jvara,- donot in any way contradict to the unusual nature of the advice. In other words to say, it falls under Unusual Advice (niyogaścāprāyikaḥ upadesha). It s unusual, since it seems to be against the usual advice of basic principles (mUlasiddhAnta) of Ayurveda.
Another example – though tender coconut water is in general avoided in fevers, it is adviced to be used in Typhoid fevers, which is an unusual advice, in vogue.
8. Apadesha –
अनेन कारणेनेत्यपदेशः, यथाऽपदिश्यते- मधुरः श्लेष्माणमभिवर्धयतीति ॥सु.उ/१५॥
anena kāraṇenetyapadeśaḥ, yathā’padiśyate- madhuraḥ śleṣmāṇamabhivardhayatīti ||Su.U/15||
Apadeśaḥ is the statement with a cause and effect. Example – Sleshma gets increased with madhura rasa intake.