By Prof. A. Rangaprasad Bhat
Adhikarana, Yoga and Padartha are the first three Tantrayukti – techniques for easy understanding of ancient Ayurvedic treatises.
तत्र यमर्थमधिकृत्योच्यते तदधिकरणं; यथा रसं दोषं वा ॥सु.उ/८॥
tatra yamarthamadhikṛtyocyate tadadhikaraṇaṃ; yathā rasaṃ doṣaṃ vā ||Su.U/8||
Of these terms Adhikarana is the subject about which something is spoken of. For example—on (the subject of ) Rasa or on (the subject of) Dosha.
येन वाक्यं युज्यते स योगः । यथा- ‘तैलं पिबेच्चामृतवल्लिनिम्बहिंस्राभयावृक्षकपिप्पलीभिः ।
सिद्धं बलाभ्यां च सदेवदारु हिताय नित्यं गलगण्डरोगे’ ।
इत्यत्र तैलं सिद्धं पिबेदिति प्रथमं वक्तव्ये तृतीयपादे सिद्धमिति प्रयुक्तं, एवं दूरस्थानामपि पदानामेकीकरणं योगः ॥सु.उ/९॥
yena vākyaṃ yujyate sa yogaḥ | yathā- ‘tailaṃ pibeccāmṛtavallinimbahiṃsrābhayāvṛkṣakapippalībhiḥ |
siddhaṃ balābhyāṃ ca sadevadāru hitāya nityaṃ galagaṇḍaroge’ |
ityatra tailaṃ siddhaṃ pibediti prathamaṃ vaktavye tṛtīyapāde siddhamiti prayuktaṃ, evaṃ dūrasthānāmapi padānāmekīkaraṇaṃ yogaḥ ||Su.U/9||
The term ‘Yoga” is the bonding or merging of words or sentences together. For example – an oil processed with amṛtavalli,nimbi,hiṃsrā,abhayā,vṛkṣaka,pippalī,the two kinds of balā and with devadāru, should be prescribed for drinking in all cases of Gala-ganda. Here the primary idea is ‘Siddham pibet’ i.e., should be cooked and taken internally ; Actually the word ‘Siddham’ is used in the third quartet of the verse (tṛtīyapāde) which is mentioned far away from the word ‘Pibet’ written in the start (prathamam) of the sentence.
The method of merging or bonding of two different words, mentioned at two different lines of a verse is called a Yoga.
3. Padārthaḥ :-
योऽर्थोऽभिहितः सूत्रे पदे वा स पदार्थः पदस्य पदयोः पदानां वाऽर्थः पदार्थः; अपरिमिताश्च पदार्थाः ।
यथा- स्नेहस्वेदाञ्जनेषु निर्दिष्टेषु द्वयोस्त्रयाणां वाऽर्थानामुपपत्तिर्दृश्यते, तत्र योऽर्थः पूर्वापरयोगसिद्धो भवति स ग्रहीतव्यः;
यथा- ‘वेदोत्पत्तिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्याम’ इत्युक्ते सन्दिह्यते बुद्धिः- कतमस्य वेदस्योत्पत्तिं वक्ष्यतीति, यतः ऋग्वेदादयस्तु वेदाः;
‘विद विचारणे, विद्लृ लाभे,’ इत्येतयोश्च धात्वोरनेकार्थयोः प्रयोगात्, तत्र पूर्वापरयोगमुपलभ्य प्रतिपत्तिर्भवति- आयुर्वेदोत्पत्तिमयं विवक्षुरिति; एष पदार्थः ॥सु.उ/१०॥
yo’rtho’bhihitaḥ sūtre pade vā sa padārthaḥ padasya padayoḥ padānāṃ vā’rthaḥ padārthaḥ; aparimitāśca padārthāḥ |
yathā- snehasvedāñjaneṣu nirdiṣṭeṣu dvayostrayāṇāṃ vā’rthānāmupapattirdṛśyate, tatra yo’rthaḥ pūrvāparayogasiddho bhavati sa grahītavyaḥ;
yathā- ‘vedotpattimadhyāyaṃ vyākhyāsyāma’ ityukte sandihyate buddhiḥ- katamasya vedasyotpattiṃ vakṣyatīti, yataḥ ṛgvedādayastu vedāḥ;
‘vida vicāraṇe, vidlṛ lābhe,’ ityetayośca dhātvoranekārthayoḥ prayogāt, tatra pūrvāparayogamupalabhya pratipattirbhavati- āyurvedotpattimayaṃ vivakṣuriti; eṣa padārthaḥ ||Su.U/10||
The term “Padartha” is the word which imples or indicates the distinctive meaning of a dravya or object. Padarthas are infinite in number.
A few examples –
a) Sneha, sveda, añjana when mentioned in a sentence, would each imply two or three meanings (as could be seen in a dictionary) ; at such occasions, the meaning of that word should be grasped so as to sync and tally with previous or subsequent words used over that context of verse in the text. This rule should be applied in grasoping and analysing each verses of the samhitas or tantras of Ayurveda.
In aforesaid context of snehasvedāñjana, the “sneha” is to be understood as the snehana pUrvakarma and not as blandness, tenderness, love, attachment to, fondness or affection for, friendship etc meanings as seen in the dictionary.
The “sveda” though has multiple synonyms as per the shabdakosha (dictionary) like sweating, perspiring, toiling, warmth, heat, any instrument or remedy for causing perspiration (i.e.,a diaphoretic, sudorific) etc., the contextual padasya artha is to be taken as the Svedana pUrvakarma only.
Like wise the word “añjana” has the following synonyms getting mentioned in the shabda koshAs, viz.,- a kind of domestic lizard,Name of a fabulous serpent,name of a tree,of a mountain, of a king of mithilā-, of the elephant of the west or south-west quarter,collyrium applied to the eyelashes,ink, night,fire etc.,
As of the context in the above quoted example of – “snehasvedāñjana” – the word “añjana” implies the specific meaning of collyrium applied to the eyelashes. The knowledge of which gets possible only when we check and countercheck by looking into the words mentioned prior to and post to the presence of the pada “snehasvedāñjana” to beget the exact context of the verse.
b)Like wise, in the sentence “Vedotpattim VyAkhya syamah” whose meaning translates verbally into “ we shall discourse on the origin of the Veda”-, the use of the word “Veda” would obfuscate to understand, which of the Vedas is referred to be discoursed upon? The reason being, the word Veda is indicative of Ṛg-Yajur-Sāma-Atharvana veda etc., too.
Having said that, if we would try to understand that expression (Veda) analogical with the previous or subsequent use of the expression, we may deduce the root ‘vid’ for the word “Veda”. The root word (pāda through Dhātupāṭha) initially makes us to understand it as ‘Vicharana” (discussion) or ‘Vindati” (to get). Upon introspection,we can logically come to the conclusion that the subject to be discoursed upon is the origin of Ayurveda, because we are reading a samhita or tantra or treatise related to the Ayurveda Chikitsa paddhati.